- Chihiro Watanabe, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria
- Kashif Naveed, and Pekka Neittaanmäki, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Gender balance, Gender balance intensity, Women board members, Trilateral co-evolution, Cultural dimension, Self-propagation
Harnessing the vigor of women’s potential is essential for inclusive economic growth in a digital economy moving toward aging society. This can be a soft engine for sustainable growth substitutable for costly hard investment. While there exists explicit evidence of a virtual cycle between economic growth and gender balance improvement, emerging countries cannot afford to overcome the constraints of low income. Given the foregoing, this paper analyzed possible co-evolution between economic growth, gender balance improvement and digital innovation initiated by information and communication technology (ICT) advancement. Using a unique dataset representing the state of gender balance improvement in the function of economic growth and ICT advancement, an empirical numerical analysis of 44 countries was attempted….
Catalyst, 2005. Corporate Performance and Women’s Representation on Boards. http://www.catalyst.org/media/companies-more-women-board-directors-experience-higher-financial-performance-accoeding-latest/ Retrieved 11 March 2017.
European Commission (EC), 2017. 2017 Report on Equality between Women and Men in the EU, EC, Brussel.
FINNCHAM, 2016. The Sixth Women Directors and Executives Report 2016 – Women Directors on the Rise: Executive Positions Still Going to Men. HINNCHAM, Helsinki.
GMI Ratings, 2013. 2013 Women on Boards Survey. GMI Ratings, New York.
Hofstede, G., 1991. Cultures and Organizations. McGraw-Hill International, London. International Labour Organization (ILO), 2015. Women in Businesses and Management: Gaining Momentum. ILO, Geneva.
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 2014. World Telecommunication Indicators Database. ITU, Geneva.
Jia, M. and Zhang, Z., 2013. Critical Mass of Women on BODs, Multiple Identities, and Corporate
Philanthropic Disaster Response: Evidence from Privacy Owned Chinese Firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 118 (2), 303-317.
Kim, H., 2015. How is South Korea Closing the Gender Gap? World Economic Forum. http://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/3qa-how-is-south-korea-closing-the-gender-gap Retrieved 7 April 2017.
McKinsey & Company, 2007. Women Matter 2007: Gender Diversity, a Corporate Performance Driver. McKinsey & Company, New York.
McKinsey & Company, 2016. Women Matter 2016: Reinventing the Workplace to Unlock the Potential of Gender Diversity. McKinsey & Company, New York.
Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan (MHLW), 2013. Health, Labor and Welfare White Paper in Japan. MHLW, Tokyo.