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Language Complexity and Multilingual Education


Debate on the medium of instruction in the primary education in India has a long history. Initially, it was between classical Indian languages and foreign language, English. Colonial rulers promoted English education with adequate fund and trained teachers with modern education background. In the advent of independence movement, the medium of instruction became a political issue. The issue of what should be the medium of instruction for mass education has received the attention in all the education commissions from 1853 onwards. Independent India delineated this issue within the context of national integration and brought out three tier language formula in 1968. …..


Executive Director, CLIL@India, Manipal University, Manipal


Primary education, medium of instruction, Mother tongue education, Multilingualism, Education policy, Language policy, Three tier language formula, Linguistic diversity, Market



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  6. She defined multilingual education as (1) multilingual: …………